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Revision as of 23:19, 16 November 2011

Why is it called "CLOCKSS"?

CLOCKSS, or Controlled LOCKSS (for Lots of Copies Keep Stuff Safe), runs on LOCKSS technology, but unlike LOCKSS (an open network), CLOCKSS is a closed system.

Why join CLOCKSS?

Libraries are joining CLOCKSS to ensure the world's e-content is protected for future generations of researchers.

Publishers are joining CLOCKSS to preserve their titles in a secure dark archive without the cost-prohibitive expense of building their own preservation and storage system. The CLOCKSS Board deemed that when a publisher's content is triggered (see what constitutes a trigger event below), CLOCKSS should not charge libraries for access; instead, the triggered content is made available for free at CLOCKSS' host sites.

Who is eligible to participate in CLOCKSS?

Any research library or publisher, worldwide.

Why is CLOCKSS considered the most cost-effective archiving solution?

CLOCKSS leverages existing infrastructure

CLOCKSS Archive Nodes -- libraries selected to be the custodians of the archived content -- are housed at institutions that have existed for decades, if not centuries. CLOCKSS supports the library's role in society as a "custodian of culture." These institutions are located in geographically, politically, and geologically disparate locations in North America, Europe, and Asia-Pacific.

CLOCKSS runs on proven digital preservation technology

LOCKSS technology has been safely and securely preserving web-published content for over 10 years and has evolved with web advances to preserve new content types.

What distinguishes CLOCKSS' from other dark archive solutions?

Business Model

Annual fees for publishers and libraries are set for a five-year period and designed to support operations during which time the Board will work to raise an endowment. The fees are intended to decrease at the end of the five years.

The Board considers an endowment critical to help cover costs. When times are tough digital preservation will not be a priority. An endowment will mitigate the risk to content preservation during economic downturns.

CLOCKSS is a tax-exempt, 501(c)3, not-for-profit organization.


Publishers and librarians have equal say to influence CLOCKSS policies, priorities, and decisions that will impact them the most.

CLOCKSS participants have the opportunity to be deeply involved in all aspects of our industry and help to keep the community’s best interests at the forefront.


The CLOCKSS Board has two goals related to sustainability:

  • Money spent on digital archiving competes with other needs. Minimize publishers’ fees; publishers pass along costs to libraries. Minimize libraries’ fees; leave libraries with more money to spend with publishers.
  • Make triggered content freely available. Do not set up another subscription layer that keeps the content behind yet ever-widening access barriers.

CLOCKSS incorporates into its business model an endowment to be raised over a five-year period, which is expected to underwrite 80% of ongoing costs.

Minimum yearly costs are projected to be low enough to make it possible to raise an endowment to cover enough of these costs to keep CLOCKSS preserving materials during hard times. Because CLOCKSS is a 501(c)3 not-for-profit organization, contributions to CLOCKSS are tax deductible.


Both source files and presentation files are accepted for ingest and preservation.

CLOCKSS preserves the original files. When content is triggered from the Archive, the content is branded as the publisher's content.


Triggered content is made freely available via CLOCKSS host sites to everyone.

We're already participating in an archiving service. Why should we join CLOCKSS?

Low cost

CLOCKSS runs on proven yet low-cost, open source LOCKSS software. Participation in CLOCKSS costs as little as $450 for libraries and $200 for publishers.

Mitigates Risk

In any market, it is important to have a choice of solutions. Those institutions that can afford to prefer not to keep all their digital preservation "eggs" in one basket.


CLOCKSS is a not-for-profit, joint venture developed by libraries and publishers. Unlike other archiving solutions, CLOCKSS answers to its community, not a parent company. Libraries and publishers have built their own archive and get to participate in its management.

What is the CLOCKSS Advisory Council?

The CLOCKSS Advisory Council advises the CLOCKSS Board of Directors on matters relating to policies and practice of digital preservation and archiving. All participating institutions may appoint one representative to the Advisory Council. For more information, please click here.

How does the CLOCKSS board define a trigger event?

Trigger events include situations of non-availability of archived content in which:

Publisher No Longer in Business

The publisher is no longer in business or is no longer in the business of publishing content or providing access to previously published content and there are no successor interests or reversions or transfers of rights;

Title No Longer Offered

The publisher has stopped publishing and is no longer providing access to the content and there are no successor interests or reversion or transfer of rights;

Back Issues No Longer Available

The publisher has stopped offering or providing access to some or all of the back issues of the content and there are no successor interests or reversion or transfer of rights; or

Catastrophic Failure

While still publishing content, the publisher is not able to provide access to the content electronically due to technical or similar catastrophic and permanent failure.

Who gets access to content impacted by a trigger event?

Everyone. The materials are moved to several CLOCKSS host sites and made available to everyone for free.

What does content preserved in CLOCKSS look like?

Take a look

Why contribute to CLOCKSS now, when it has a long-term payoff that will be freely available to everyone?

There are a number of reasons.

The mission of CLOCKSS is to make sure archiving remains in the hands of the community -- this is a mission for today as much as for the very long term. Libraries that contribute to CLOCKSS gain a seat on the CLOCKSS Advisory Council, and participate alongside fellow librarians and publishers to set the archive's policies. By contributing to CLOCKSS, a library makes sure that it has a direct voice in archiving decisions being made right now.

CLOCKSS needs each and every library's support today in order to continue to exist in the future. Your contribution and support today helps us build the reach and impact to fully serve all your library's archiving needs: it allows us to attract more publishers and content; it helps us reach new and smaller publishers whose content is most at risk; and it helps us add new initiatives such as archiving ebooks.

CLOCKSS saves your library from having to pay continually for access to orphaned content. CLOCKSS publishers have agreed to make their triggered content open access: the archive takes triggered from behind a toll wall and saves your library money on subscriptions.

There is some urgency: publishers have asked CLOCKSS to demonstrate that the library community truly wants triggered content to be open access. The publishers will not give us a second chance: they are taking a risk by contributing their content today, and need to hear from libraries that it's in good cause.

CLOCKSS and LOCKSS: What is different?

Content location and custody

• Libraries use LOCKSS to build and preserve their own local digital collections. LOCKSS re-instates the paper model where libraries purchase content from publishers and take custody of e-content in their own LOCKSS box, stored at their own library. A LOCKSS box is a digital bookshelf with automated preservation. Libraries use the LOCKSS technology to preserve the collection for their campus and to acquire valuable assets for their Universities. They are taking content ownership and building permanent library collections, rather than leasing temporary access to materials. Libraries install and maintain their own LOCKSS boxes, running the LOCKSS software.

• CLOCKSS is global archive that preserves content on behalf of all libraries and scholars worldwide. CLOCKSS preserves content in 12 strategically chosen libraries across the globe to optimize the content’s safety against political and environmental threats. Libraries in Asia, Europe, and North America have a complete copy of the archive. Many libraries support CLOCKSS through financial contributions and by participating in archive governance; they do not store any technology locally.

Content access, to whom and when

• Content is served from a library’s LOCKSS box to an institution’s own readers when the publisher's site is unavailable. LOCKSS provides 100% continual access and 100% post-cancellation access to that institution’s campus community.

• CLOCKSS preserved content is available free to everyone when it is not available from a publisher or “triggered” from the dark archive. Today, three titles are available open access from the CLOCKSS archive. CLOCKSS is the only archive that makes subscription content open access after trigger. CLOCKSS is the only archive that keeps open access content freely available after trigger.


• CLOCKSS is an international, global archive governed by librarians and publishers. Librarians and publishers participate in the Board of Directors and Advisory Council to oversee strategy, and policy. All participating libraries appoint a delegate to the CLOCKSS Advisory Council. In October 2009 the CLOCKSS archive became a non-profit organization.

• LOCKSS was founded in 1998 and is a self-funded department of the Stanford University Libraries.

CLOCKSS and LOCKSS: What is the same?

Preservation technology

• LOCKSS and CLOCKSS use the award winning LOCKSS technology to preserve content. The LOCKSS technology is “fault tolerant” and safeguards against the long term well documented causes of digital loss: human error, computer attacks, economic and organizational failure. • The LOCKSS technology preserves all formats (video, sound, pictures, text, etc.) and genres of content (e-journals, e-books, conference proceedings, etc.). The Global LOCKSS network works with over 450 publishers. After one year of operation, the CLOCKSS archive works with over 3o publishers.

Content is not behind a toll wall

• For both LOCKSS and CLOCKSS information access does not depend upon fees. Both programs implement a core library value -unfettered access to information.